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  • God's Nature As A Maximal Substance
    5,340 words
    Spinoza at first worked in the framework of the Cartesian philosophy, publishing in 1663 a book entitled Principles of the Philosophy of Ren Descartes. Another early work, the posthumously published Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect, contains themes that were central to Descartes investigation of knowledge. It also contains hints of the metaphysics unfolded in the posthumously published Ethics, the capstone of Spinoza's philosophical career. In the Emendation of the Intellect, Spinoza ...
  • Attributes Of The Two Substances
    1,382 words
    This paper will outline Spinoza's argument in Part 1 of his Ethics of substance. He argues that there is only one substance, which is the same as God, that includes everything in the universe. It will walk through each proposition and explain his proof of it, which relies of his stated definitions. This paper will also explain the difference between Spinoza's belief of substance and that of Leibniz from his Discourse on Metaphysics. It will then argue that Leibniz's account of the number of subs...
  • Extended And A Thinking Substance
    2,272 words
    Descartes explains in nature that he exits by having such qualities and abilities to see, touch, taste and smell. Although existing in nature includes being able to walk, have perception and thinking, Descartes believes that he is a thinking thing. (Thinking includes understanding and reason). But what is a thinking thing It is a thing that doubts, understands, affirms, denies, wills, refuses that imagines also, and perceives. Assuredly it is not little, if all these properties belong to my natu...
  • Substance For Aristotle
    1,248 words
    Aristotle: A Comprehensive View on Nature and Society In order to fully understand Aristotle's views on a natural system, its necessary to first explain some general principles of his philosophy. It is in his work the Categories that Aristotle presents the concept of substance, a concept which will serve as the foundation for much of his philosophical system. Substance, for Aristotle, is not a universal, but rather, it is the particular; substance is not a "such", but a "this". Thus, substance i...
  • Substance And The Things In Nature
    1,112 words
    Substances human beings we have the capabilities of thought and reasoning, which is why we have evolved the way we have. However one can never be to sure that what we think and what we reason is really truth. And that idea can lead a person asking certain questions; What is the nature of existence? What is the nature of reality and it's principles? but then more questions follow within These; What are we touching? What are we looking at? What are these things interfering and altering our lives? ...
  • Transmutation Of The Baser Metals Into Gold
    3,800 words
    Alchemy: Fact or Pha licy ALCHEMY: The science by aid of which the chemical philosophers of Medieval times attempted to transmute the baser metals into gold or silver. There is considerable divergence of opinion as to the etymology of the word, but it would seem to be derived from the Arabic al = the, andkimya = chemistry, which in turn derives from the late Greekchemica = chemistry, from chum eia = a mingling, or chee in, 'to pour out' or " mix', Aryan root gnu, to pour, whence the word 'gush'....

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