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  • Cases Of Neonatal Myasthenia Gravis
    794 words
    In 1890, German medical professor Wilhelm Erb and other physicians had been observing several cases of a neuromuscular disease that they believed was affecting how nerve impulses were transmitted to muscle at the neuromuscular junction. The patients experienced a "grave muscular weakness" and Wilhelm named it myasthenia gravis. Through further research, the physicians discovered whether it affected the eye muscles first, or created difficulty in talking, chewing and swallowing, or in using the a...
  • Two Main Classes Of Ach Receptors
    1,064 words
    Transmitter Molecule Derived From Site of Synthesis Acetylcholine Choline CNS, parasympathetic nerves Serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) Tryptophan CNS, chromaffin cells of the gut, enteric cells GABA Glutamate CNS Glutamate CNS Aspartate CNS Glycine spinal cord Histamine Histidine hypothalamus Epinephrine synthesis pathway Tyrosine adrenal medulla, some CNS cells Norepinephrine synthesis pathway Tyrosine CNS, sympathetic nerves Dopamine synthesis pathway Tyrosine CNS Adenosine ATP CNS, periph...
  • Receptor Proteins And Signal Molecules
    364 words
    Receptor Protein - Protein that binds to a specific single molecule, enabling the cell to respond to the signal molecule. i.e. - The muscles of a person exercising can not contract without receptor proteins and signal molecules that tell the muscles when to contract and when to relax. Second Messenger - Signal molecule produced in response to the binding of a chemical signal. Acts as a signal molecule in the cytoplasm. Signal Molecule - Carries information throughout the body and to other cells....
  • Tlr 2 And Tlr 4 Signal Ling
    1,941 words
    Cellular Basis Of Disease: Why has the discovery of Toll-like receptors revolutionized our understanding of how the innate immune system works, and what is the therapeutic potential? The body has two immune systems: the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. Adaptive, or acquired, immunity refers to antigen-specific defence mechanisms that take several days to become protective and are designed to react with and remove a specific antigen. This is immunity develops throughout life. ...
  • Neurotransmitter Acid
    1,681 words
    Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters are chemicals made by neurons and used by them to transmit signals to the other neurons or non-neuronal cells (e. g., skeletal muscle; myocardium, pineal glandular cells) that they innervate. The neurotransmitters produce their effects by being released into synapses when their neuron of origin fires (i. e., becomes depolarized) and then attaching to receptors in the membrane of the post-synaptic cells. This causes changes in the fluxes of particular ions acro...
  • Effects Of Insulin On Glucose Metabolism
    1,551 words
    Stand on a street corner and ask people if they know what insulin is, and many will reply, 'Doesn " tit have something to do with blood sugar?' Indeed, that is correct, but such a response is a bit like saying 'Mozart? Wasn't he some kind of a musician?' Insulin is a key player in the control of intermediary metabolism. It has profound effects on both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and significant influences on protein and mineral metabolism. Consequently, derangements in insulin signal ling...
  • C Signals Within The Cell
    1,589 words
    The Language of The Cell MAY 3rd, 1996 SCIENCE 10 AP The cell is a complex and delicate system: It can be seen that the cell is the stage where everyday functions such as molecule movement, protein synthesis and tissue repair take place. All organelles within the cell are well rehearsed in their operations, but an error on an organelles behalf, can send the cell and it's organelles into panic. The efficiency rate of the cell plummets down to a low level. It does take some time for the dust to se...
  • Imbalances Of Chemicals In The Endocrine System
    490 words
    The foundations of the Endocrine System consist of hormones and glands. These glands are ductless and their secretions are sent through the bloodstream. Endocrine glands also control bodily metabolic activity. The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, the pancreas, and the reproductive glands, which include the ovaries and testes. The endocrine system has three basic functions, regulate metabolic functi...
  • B Cells As T Cell Receptors
    1,837 words
    'A fundamental requirement of the immune system is that it destroy, eliminate or inactivate all foreign viruses, bacteria and parasites without destroying self-cells or molecules' (Lydyard 2000). This is carried out by B and T cells, which are able to distinguish what is 'foreign' (i.e. non self) from what is self. They are responsible for the adaptive immune response and have developed a number of different mechanisms in the central and peripheral lymphoid organs that underlie the basis for sel...

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