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  • Principles To Classical Conditioning Stimulus Generalisation
    1,649 words
    A COMPARISON BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING. This essay outlines the basic principles of classical and operant conditioning and considers the similarities and differences between these two models of learning. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Classical conditioning is so named after the experimental procedure devised by the physiologist, Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), when he changed his focus from the digestive system to conditioning, after noticing a dog salivate when it saw the bucket in which its...
  • Third In Classical Conditioning Reinforcement
    913 words
    How Organism Learn: Classical and Operant Conditioning There are two main explanations of how organisms learn. The first explanation is known as classical conditioning. The second explanation is known as operant conditioning. These two types of learning are exhibited in our everyday lives through our home, school, and school. Classical conditioning was discovered by Iran Petrovich Pavlov. He was originally a physiologist whose main focus was the digestive system (Gazzaniga 230). His discovery wa...
  • Classical Conditioning And The Fear Of Flying
    749 words
    How Lauren may have learned of her Fear of Flying? How Lauren learned she had a fear in flying? Using the Classical Conditioning theory the possibilities could be endless. Classical conditioning in simple terms is the method in which one determines why and the cause of a condition as well as what has brought it about. There are many stimulus both conditioned and unconditioned that can cause fear or other problems, but the major reason for causes regarding the fear of flying has been mentioned in...
  • Learned Response A Conditional Response
    387 words
    Classical Conditioning We can see learning taking place all the time, but there is no simple explanation of the process. Psychologists have examined four types of learning; one of these is classical conditioning or response learning. Classical conditioning is the easiest kind of learning. Classical conditioning is based on experiments that took place in the 1900's by the Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov. He trained dogs to salivate at signals such as lights, tones, or buzzers by using the sig...
  • Known As A Conditioned Stimulus
    1,171 words
    A commonly heard word within psychology is "conditioning", where does it come from and what does it mean? Conditioning is simply a form of learning, specifically learning through association. Conditioning is used in many experiments as I will discuss later. Classical conditioning was stumbled upon by accident by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. After he earned his medical degree in 1882 he spent many years studying the digestive system of many animals. By the year 1904 Pavlov had won the Nobel ...
  • Startled Response In My Roommate
    332 words
    Classical vs. Study done at home showing the effects of operant and classical conditioning. Operant Conditioning For my first experiment I tried to induce a startled response in my roommate by using Classical Conditioning. Since we have a lot of traffic in and out of our apartment I decided that every time someone opened or closed the front door I would clap loudly in his ear and he would startle. After a couple of times I discontinued this behavior to see if he would still startle when someone ...
  • Conditioning Of The Dog
    1,221 words
    When ever the bell rings in any school in any nation you are guaranteed to see students and teachers file into the hallway. This automatic response comes from something that has been around for a long time called classical conditioning. Classicalconditioning was discovered and researched by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. His famous experiment with his dog is known to nearly everyone who has had a middle school or higher education. He fed his dog in a pattern, every time he fed his dog he r...
  • Conditioned Response To A Similar Stimulus
    2,119 words
    We use the term "classical conditioning" to describe one type of associative learning in which there is no contingency between response and reinforcer. This situation resembles most closely the experiment from Pavlov in the 1920's, where he trained his dogs to associate a bell ring with a food-reward. In such experiments, the subject initially shows weak or no response to a conditioned stimulus (CS, e.g. the bell), but a measurable unconditioned response (UCR, e.g. saliva production) to an uncon...
  • Conditioned Response
    856 words
    Applications Paper: The paper presented is aimed at demonstrating the primary principals behind classical conditioning. By using a real life example the textbook theory can be applied to a hypothetical patient suffering from a sleep disorder possibly somewhat brought on by a 'learnt' experience. My female friend expresses the symptoms of alertness and insomnia commonly prior to one specific action; brushing her teeth. The scenario given dictates that the only other time my friend brushes her tee...
  • Conditioned Response And The Neutral Stimulus
    555 words
    Phobias: Irrational Fear Fear of heights, fear of the number "13", fear of spiders, fear of small spaces. All of these fears are considered phobias. While there are many causes of phobias, one theory uses the notion of preparedness in Pavlovian conditioning. This is a way in which people learn to react to certain stimuli. Scientist and a behaviorist, Pavlov, first discovered this conditioning while experimenting with dogs. He could reliably predict that dogs would salivate when food was placed i...
  • Conditioned Stimulus And A Conditioned Response
    1,243 words
    There are many different kinds of ways that people and animals learn. People can adjust the way they learn to the different situations in which they are learning and what they have to learn. One form of learning is known as conditioning. Conditioning emphasises the relationship between stimuli and responses. The two types of conditioning found are Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. Learning may occur in different ways. Psychologists have distinguished between different types of lea...
  • Classical Conditioning And Preparedness Theory
    1,809 words
    How has preparedness theory attempted to integrate a Pavlovian model of the acquisition of specific phobias with this biological specificity What is the status of Preparedness theory today When confronted with a phobic object or situation an individual appears to have little control and no alternative but to avoid the feared object or situation (Ohman & Soares, 1993). Consequently, individuals with a phobia can be vulnerable to anxiety induced automatic reactions to an object or situation which ...
  • Child's Bed
    770 words
    Parents are always looking for a way to not only teach their children how to do their chores, but also self-discipline to continue doing those chores, such as, making the bed. To teach you six year old son how to make his bed is one thing, to teach him to maintain that bed-making behavior is quite another. Presented with the following methods: operant conditioning, classical conditioning, observational learning, punishment, shaping, negative reinforcement, variable ratio reinforcement, and fixed...
  • Classical Conditioning In An Everyday Life
    671 words
    Life is full of interesting associations. Have we ever heard songs on the radio, or find ourselves in places, that instantly make we feel good because they have connected to special times we have had? When we smell freshly baked cookies, does it make our mouth water or stomach growl? These examples illustrate a learning process called classical conditioning, in which an organism learns to associate two stimuli (e. g., a song and a pleasant event), such that one stimulus (the song) comes to produ...
  • Cognitive And Behavioural Therapy
    1,124 words
    Behavioral And Cognitive Approaches In The Management Of Anxiety Compare and Contrast Behavioural and Cognitive Approaches in the Management of Anxiety The Behavioural Model sees the cause of abnormality as the learning of maladaptive habits. It aims to discover, by laboratory experiment, what aspect of the environment produced this learning, and it sees successful therapy as learning new and more adaptive ways of behaving. There are two kinds of basic learning processes that exist: Operant and ...

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